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The 4 Most Influential Fitness Trends

Every year, data and news service Thomson Reuters compiles an index of the “World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds.” Scientists earn a place atop the list by publishing several articles that rank among the top one percent most cited by fellow researchers.

“Citations offer a direct testament to work that scientists themselves judge to be the most important to ongoing research,” said Gordon Macomber, managing director of Thomson Reuters Scientific and Scholarly Research, in a press release.

With that in mind, we combed through the most influential sports science journals to find their top-cited articles over the past five years. Presenting what all that research has to say about our health:

We’re Obsessed With Shortcuts

The Source: Journal of Applied Physiology

We want to go fast. But we don't want to do the hard work. Nitrate and protein supplement research dominates the literature. Nitrates, found in beetroot juice, were found to make exercise more efficient and help endurance athletes go stronger longer—if they drank 17 ounces of the stuff every day for at least three days before go-time.

And in muscle-building news, the journal’s top-cited study concluded that whey hydrolysate beats out soy protein and casein for post-workout muscle recovery. Athletes who downed a drink with 10 grams of whey hydrosylate after performing resistance exercise had a 93 percent greater muscle protein synthesis response than they did after consuming a drink that contained the same amount of casein.

The takeaway? Everyone's looking for a fitness shortcut. In reality, diet tweaks and supplements might help you eke out that final percent of performance gain. But for most athletes, sticking to the fundamentals will yield more immediate results.

We Want to Embrance Bionic Technology

The Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine

Platelet-rich-plasma injections (aka PRP) were the hot topic in this journal. As the top-cited article explains, PRP injections are prepared from one’s own blood, and contain “growth factors and bioactive proteins that influence the healing of tendon, ligament, muscle, and bone.” More and more pro athletes are turning to both stem cell and PRP injections to try to avoid the uncertainty and down time associated with surgery.

Using one’s own blood as a body boost is nothing new. Tour de France cyclists have been extracting their own blood—sometimes centrifuging it down to just the red blood cells, then re-injecting it—for years. As Bike Pure explains, autologous blood transfusion “is not detectable and is perhaps not technically “doping”, but remains a banned technique affording a massive boost to an athlete over fatigued competition” by delivering extra oxygen to working muscles, and “increasing the capacity of the muscles to use oxygen by up to five percent.”

Unlike blood doping, PRP injections are not illegal. In 2011, the World Anti-Doping Agency removed PRP from its list of banned substances after noting a lack of evidence that the procedure enhances performance. PRP is for healing.

We're Terrified Of Concussions

The Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine

For athletes in contact sports like football, researchers are particularly concerned about concussions: their long-term effects, how to spot one, and how to decide when an athlete is ready to play again after suffering one.

Since top researchers released a popular consensus statement on concussion in sport in late 2008, research on the condition has exploded. We know now, for example, that men take more than twice as long as women to recover from a concussion. (An average of 66.9 days vs. 26.3 days for women, likely because the female hormone progesterone may play a protective role.) And that 10 to 20 minutes of low-intensity aerobic activity can alleviate symptoms and expedite recovery.

Helmet technology is getting smarter, too. In football, the new Riddell SpeedFlex helmet is “designed to disperse energy, reducing the risk of trauma,” SB Nation reports.  A built-in response system “is intended to alert coaches when a player suffers a significant hit to the head, or multiple hits that combine to pose a risk. And in the endurance sports world, Swedish company POC introduced helmets with MIPS, a technology designed to reduce oblique impact forces on the brain by allowing the helmet’s shell and liner to move separately.

We Think Sitting Is Killing Us

The Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise and Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews

In perhaps one of the most talked-about studies from this journal, scientists linked time spent sitting to mortality and found that the longer people sit every day, the higher their mortality rate. The revelation brought on a wave of stand-up desk articles and an urge to at least get up every 15 minutes to take a lap around the office.

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Tapping Into the Next Super Fuel

Beets are so 2013. That’s right: maple syrup is the world’s newest super fuel, and it will soon be available in tear-top packets like the ones used by Honey Stinger and Gu.

A new company—called UnTapped and backed by pro racer Ted King—plans to package the maple syrup as an energy gel. Each packet, which contains only pure maple syrup from Vermont’s Slopeside Syrup—has 100 calories of natural energy. It’s available now for pre-order on Indiegogo.

Maple syrup has many of the minerals and electrolytes athletes need to perform at the top of their games. A tablespoon of pure maple syrup has two milligrams of sodium—critical to help maintain blood fluid levels during exercise. That same amount of syrup also has 42 milligrams of potassium to prevent muscle cramping. Manganese—a trace element linked to better bone health—occurs naturally in maple syrup, as does iron.

There’s more. According to a 2011 study from researchers at the University of Rhode Island, Canadian maple syrup has anti-inflammatory properties: one of the lead researchers went so far as to call it “a champion food” with many of the same healthy compounds found in berries, tea, red wine, and flax seed.

Plus, it’s a simple, easily digestible sugar. Pure syrup has a low glycemic index, which keeps you from constantly feeling hungry, and maintains even blood sugar and insulin levels. Maple sugars burn slowly and are absorbed slowly for spike-free energy. I would know: I’ve tried the stuff myself.

I’ve had the enviable task of taste testing Slopeside Syrup’s signature sauce—Grade A Amber—for more than a year now, and have been purchasing Slopeside Syrup in bulk for use on, well, anything I can think of. The stuff is easy to stomach even on hot days and in the middle of epically long rides.

You won’t find any of that in Aunt Jemima. You also won’t find most of this natural goodness in any other sports gel. Then, of course, there’s the delicious taste.

$1.89/packet 

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The Radical New Guard of Fitness

Today's fitness disrupters are a bit of a mixed bag. There's an ex-marathon champion, a multisport workout-video king, and a Silicon Valley insider, to name a few. The common thread: They're all getting a lot of attention, and they all have their own clear vision for the new future of fitness. 

Steve Edwards

You probably know Edwards’s work. As the director of results for Beachbody, one of the largest fitness companies in the world, the 53-year-old runner, climber, and cyclist has helped develop the routines for dozens of workout videos, everything from P90X to Brazilian Butt Lift. Millions of DVDs featuring his workouts have been sold worldwide. He’s the unofficial company lab rat, and there are few fad diets or newfangled training regimens Edwards hasn’t tried. “I like messing with my body,” he says. “If you don’t test it yourself, you can’t really know.”

Edwards’s Advice

1. Jump rope. “If I could do only one exercise, this is it. It works your upper body, lower body, and core. The cardio benefits are legendary, too.”

2. Opt for beans and rice. “It’s like a poor man’s sports food. It’s mainly carbohydrates but also contains plenty of protein and vitamins and minerals.”

Matt Skenazy

Brent Ruby

Ruby, an exercise physiologist and director of the Montana Center for Work Physiology and Exercise Metabolism, once took a muscle biopsy of his own leg after a half Ironman, because he was curious about how much energy he’d expended. (The answer: about 4,500 calories.) Needless to say, this isn’t the way traditional research is done. But Ruby’s real-world tests have led to innovative discoveries, including one that found that rates of muscle recovery are as dependent on how often you eat during a race as what you eat afterward.

Last August, intrigued by altitude acclimatization, he took a mobile lab up Mount Evans in Colorado, site of the highest paved road in America (14,264 feet), and flew in 30 subjects. Without giving them time to acclimatize, he strapped them to a treadmill and had them swallow various supplements to see who performed best. (The study is ongoing). A longtime Ironman triathlete, Ruby often designs the outlines of his studies while in the field. “It’s about balancing the creative and analytical situations I find myself in,” he says. “I formulate questions I wouldn’t have otherwise if I hadn’t been out on a bike ride or a long run.”

Ruby’s Rules

1. Begin your recovery during the workout. While studying road cyclists, Ruby discovered that eating regularly during long bouts of exercise is often more important for muscle recovery than a protein-heavy recovery shake afterward. Opt for something simple—a granola bar, some pretzels—every 20 minutes or so.

2. Don’t overdo it with hydration. Studying firefighting crews, Ruby found that it’s not uncommon for hotshots, who work in extreme heat, to lose one to two liters of sweat per hour. Because it isn’t feasible to compensate for that loss in the field, Ruby advises letting thirst be your guide. Your body will regulate itself over time to match your water intake.

3. Keep it chill. In the first four hours after exercise, Ruby found that ambient and muscle temperature can influence recovery more than post-workout nutrition. The body needs to cool down, but that doesn’t mean you should have an ice bath. The simplest advice: don’t linger outside on a hot day.

Meaghen Brown

Alberto Salazar

Salazar will always be known for his three New York City Marathon titles in the 1980s—and the fact that he wrecked his body through vicious training sessions to achieve them. But he’s now making an even bigger name for himself as the head coach at Nike’s pro running program, the Oregon Project. And his masochist past has fueled his unconventional belief in prescribing brutal workouts for his runners, including having them run after all-out races. Why? Salazar, 55, believes that the adrenaline of racing primes the body to work harder than everyday conditions permit and that his runners get a double stimulus from a race followed by a workout. Beating the best in the world, Salazar says, means you’ve got to experiment, and over the years he’s been the first to tinker with innovative training tools like oxygen tents, which mimic high altitude. Since 2007, five Oregon Project runners have won ten world championships or Olympic medals, more than any other distance group in the country. Writes Salazar in his 2013 autobiography, 14 Minutes: “We are just scratching the surface of empirically training the human body.”

Salazar’s High-Tech Tools

1. Cryosaunas. Refrigerator-size cylinders are pumped full of supercooled liquid nitrogen, to chill runners’ skin and promote recovery.

2. Underwater treadmills. Low-gravity running lets athletes reap the benefits of extra mileage without the wear and tear.

3. Altitude houses. Oxygen-depleted homes simulate sleeping at elevation, which boosts aerobic efficiency.

Peter Vigneron

Raj Kapoor

“For most people, the gym is broken,” says Kapoor, 43. “Globally, it’s a $75 billion business, and more than 60 percent of people don’t go, even though they’re paying.” That’s why Kapoor, one of Silicon Valley’s most well-known investors (he cofounded the photo app Snapfish), turned his attention to the fitness world. He quickly realized that the problem was not time or money but motivation, or lack thereof. His big idea? Spark people’s enthusiasm with two incentives: community and cash. In January, he launched Fitmob, a website that lets you connect with personal trainers, who are vetted by the company, and join group workouts in studios, gyms, and even nightclubs. The more training sessions you attend each week, the lower the price, from $15 for your first session to $5 for your third and fourth. Group workouts organized by social media, especially in public parks, is one of the hottest trends in fitness. But most of these classes are free. Can Kapoor convince people to pay for them? His sell is that Fitmob’s experienced certified trainers are worth the expense. Launched in January, it now offers more than 50 classes per week, everything from yoga and pilates to CrossFit. And 80 percent of mobbers have invited friends to join. “Fitness is not about fancy equipment or expensive real estate,” says Kapoor. “It’s about people helping people. We’re reinventing the gym for the digital age.”

Fitmob’s Most Popular Classes

1. Rise and Grind. Circuit training and high-intensity interval sessions.

2. Battle of the Bands. Strength and conditioning with exercise bands.

3. Weapons of Ass Reduction. Female-focused class with squats, lunges, and other toning exercises.

4. Mission Impossible. Running drills, mobility exercises, and core exercises in a circuit.

Ryan Krogh

Steven LeBoeuf

LeBoeuf, founder of Valencell, a tech supplier to consumer fitness companies, says most wearable devices­—Fitbit, Nike+ FuelBand—aren’t providing meaningful data. “They don’t measure the things we need to know about,” he says. For a device to be useful to the average consumer, it can’t just track your heart rate. It needs to compare your heart rate with your activity history to calculate training adaptations. Most important, the device has to fit seamlessly into your daily routines. To help transform wearable devices from gimmicks into essential gear, LeBoeuf and Valencell developed PerformTek, an earbud technology that tracks everything from oxygen levels to core temperature to, in the future, whether you’ve got a heart problem. LeBoeuf’s ultimate goal is a day when tracking allows consumers to personally take charge of their health and fitness. “When this gets really good,” he says, “people will be astonished by what they learn about themselves.”

LeBoeuf’s Rules

1. Track yourself. Even if the data being captured isn’t rich, LeBoeuf says, a monitoring device may inspire you to be more active.

2. Trust the tech. Last December, LeBoeuf injured his groin while pushing for a running PR—this despite Valencell’s tracking app beeping at him to slow down. The program recognized that he was going too hard even when he didn’t.

Michael Frank

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High Society, Higher Trails

The Leadville Race Series is right around the corner, and if you've scored one of the two suites at the Governor's Mansion, consider yourselves lucky. The historic building on Eighth Street is not only blocks from the race start but also among the few accommodations in town that offer full kitchens complete with cook tops, refrigerators, microwaves, toasters, and coffee makers (runners, you can cook your oatmeal or cream of wheat exactly to your liking on race morning).

{%{"image":"http://media.outsideonline.com/images/leadville-governors-mansion-kitchen_fe.jpg","caption":"With it's full kitchen and cozy leather couches, the Governor's mansion is a quaint home away from home."}%}

Athletes will also love that each suite (which can sleep up to four) has its own entrance and private bath; no waking up everyone on your floor at 3 a.m. as you're sneaking out to the race start or attempting to clear your bowels for the tenth time that morning. 

The first-floor Jesse McDonald suit, named for the former Colorado governor who built the house in 1893, opens into a formal parlor with high ceilings and a gas fireplace. In fact, the Victorian decor—lace curtains, floral wallpaper, antique furniture—makes you wonder for a moment if McDonald himself might come through the front door.

{%{"image":"http://media.outsideonline.com/images/governors-mansion-bedroom_fe.jpg","caption":"Both suites are kitted out in unque decor that will transport you to a different time."}%}

The property is now owned by Jo Ann and Jaime Stuever, who relocated to the Centennial State from Florida in 2005. "Both Jaime and I feel that if you are going to change your life, do it in a big way," Jo Ann says. "I always dreamed of living in an old Victorian house, and when I first walked in the front door, I knew the Governor's Mansion was perfect."

During the past nine years, the couple—in addition to learning to ski—has enjoyed hosting guests and sending them out on adventures in and around Leadville. In fact, they became so engrained in the community that in 2011, Jaime was elected as Leadville's mayor. If you ask him, he'll tell you all about the town's mining history and how it came to be the highest incorporated city in North America.

{%{"image":"http://media.outsideonline.com/images/leadville-mineral-belt-trail-view_fe.jpg","caption":"You'll feel like you're on top of the 10,000-foot town when you wake up at the Governor's Mansion."}%}

Surrounded by the highest peaks in Colorado, the quintessential mountain town main street boasts several sporting goods stores, antique shops, and eateries, all in a half-mile stretch. Start your day with an early morning latte and breakfast burrito at City on a Hill, a charming coffee shop that roasts its own beans and showcases local art (this summer, Precision Peaks grace the walls; you likely won't be able to leave without purchasing your favorite mountain).

{%{"image":"http://media.outsideonline.com/images/leadville-downtown-evening_fe.jpg","caption":"Downtown Leadville is a half-mile of mile-high tradition, with old-school main street shops."}%}

If time allows, explore the area's many trails (check out the Mineral Belt Trail, which loops 11.6 miles around town, or go father afield to Turquoise Lake or Mount Elbert). Afterward, refuel at High Mountain Pies or grab a late-night beer at the Silver Dollar (what the saloon lacks in local draughts, it makes up for in atmosphere).

{%{"image":"http://media.outsideonline.com/images/leadville-downtown-saloon_fe.jpg","caption":"The one and only saloon is the perfect place to have a cold one and bask in the glory of the Wild West."}%}

And don't forget about the second-story deck back at the Governor's Mansion. It just might be the best place in town to watch the sun set over the Rockies and prop up your tired feet.

{%{"image":"http://media.outsideonline.com/images/leadville-marathon-mosquito-pass_fe.jpg","caption":"In Leadville, you are going to find some spectacular landscapes that will take your breath away--if the altitude doesn't."}%}

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Tour Machines

For many manufacturers, the Tour de France is a testing ground and launching pad for new rides. But often the race comes so early in the production cycle that only a few key riders get access to the new bikes. Here are a few of the most notable launches we've seen from this year’s Tour de France. Even if you can't ride 'em all yet, you can drool over 'em. 

Trek Émonda

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The new flagship Trek gets its name from the word émonder, the French verb meaning to prune or to strip away. That's because the Waterloo, Wisconsin, bike manufacturer excised everything extraneous to create this lissome climber.

According to Trek, it is the lightest production bike in the world, with the top-line SLR10 tipping the scales at an almost unbelievable 10.25 pounds for a size 56. At 690 grams for the frame, it’s still heavier than the SuperSix EVO Black Inc., which Cannondale claims to be 655 grams, meaning Trek is getting the savings out of integrated components such as the direct-mount Bontrager Speed Stop brakes and the Tune hubs and tubular rims.

It might all seem a bit ridiculous given that UCI mandates bikes weigh a minimum of 14.99 pounds, which forces mechanics to supplement the bikes of riders like Frank Schleck and Haimar Zubeldia with four extra pounds of dead weight. Then again, the Émonda could be another sign that the governing body may soon lower or remove that limit altogether. The Émonda is available now and ranges from $15,750 for the SLR10 down to $1,650 for the S4, which is said to weigh 19.27 pounds.

Pinarello Dogma F8

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The Italian manufacturer rolled out the F8, its first ever aero model, ahead of last month’s Critérium du Dauphiné, and British outfit Team Sky is aboard the new bike at the Tour. Developed in conjunction with auto manufacturer Jaguar, the bike employs truncated airfoil tube shapes, not unlike the Scott Foil and the Trek Madone, and is said to not only have less drag than the previous top-shelf Dogma, but it's also significantly lighter. 

Pinarello claims the frame is 80 grams lighter than the Dogma, with an additional 40 grams weight savings coming from the revised, and much-less-wavy-than-before Onda fork. Defending champ Chris Froome started the Tour with three identical F8s, all equipped with Shimano wheels and Dura Ace Di2 components. His understudy, Richie Porte, who took over where the Brit left off, is also riding the new bike.

Lapierre Aircode

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French manufacturer Lapierre also got in on the aero movement for this Tour with its Aircode, which is currently being ridden by fifth-placed Thibaut Pinot and his entire FDJ team. The bike uses the same time-tested geometry as the Xelius EFI, but the tube shaping is all new, with most tubes employing a Kamm Tail, teardrop-shape profile.

Lapierre makes additional aerodynamic gains with internal cable routings, an integrated seat post clamp, and partial integration of the brakes. The company also unveiled a second bike, the Pulsium, a comfort-oriented endurance frame with an elastomer built into the top tub near the seat post junction to provide vertical compliance. FDJ rode the Pulsium on the infamous cobbled fifth stage.

Fuji Transonic

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Not to be left out, Fuji also unveiled an aerodynamic remake of its venerable SST, a bike we liked very much. Dubbed the Transonic, the bike benefits from much of the wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics modeling that helped to create the Norcom Straight, the TT and tri bike the company launched last year. The tube shaping here is similar, but not identical to the Norcom Straigt, and there are other familiar cues, such as the integrated wedge seat post clamp.

One brand new development is the direct-mount rear brake, which is wrapped into the seat stays with the carbon frame functioning as a block to keep the brakes out of the wind. Fuji says that a rider on the bike pedaling at 300 watts will save 24 watts over the SST and 21 over the Altamira, which equates to 65 and 55 seconds respectively in a 40-kilometer time trial. Team NetApp-Endura, which contributed extensive feedback on the bike in the development process, was enjoying great success aboard the Transonic at the Tour under Portuguese rider Tiago Machado, who was in third overall until he crashed hard on Stage 10.

Specialized S-Works McLaren Tarmac

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When Specialized launched the 2015 Tarmac in May, we were surprised that there was no mention of a McLaren edition to complement the Venge superbike of previous years. But a few days before the Tour, the company unveiled the bike, which it developed in collaboration with the McLaren F1 team. Specialized says the bike took a little longer because the Tarmac platform was already extremely efficient, so it was a challenge to eke out gains.

The McLaren Tarmac is 10 percent lighter than the standard S-Works version, but those savings are said to come at zero cost to performance thanks to a proprietary lay-up process developed exclusively for the bike. The bike is spec’d with Shimano Di2 components, EE Cycleworks custom brakes, and Roval CLX40R tubular wheels built expressly for the McLaren and will sell for a stratospheric $20,000. Only 250 McLaren Tarmacs will be produced, and just two racers in the Tour were issued the bikes—Astana’s Jacob Fuglsang and Tinkov-Saxo’s Nicolas Roche.

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