A mixed workout program produces the best heart health outcomes, a new study finds

Researchers explore how your brain chemistry may start dulling pain and boosting mood before you even take a step

New research confirms that a week of hot tub sessions helps your body adapt to heat

We know that cognitive function is impaired at high altitude, but it’s not entirely clear why

Real-world data shows elite ultrarunners average 180 steps per minute—and that means nothing

New research finds weightlifters have stronger tongues and runners have better tongue endurance—and that matters

Plotting top-100 marathon times for the past decade shows that Eliud Kipchoge’s world record is a huge outlier. The question is why.

What the new data says about how long the average hiker takes, what they drink, and how tired they get

At the 2016 world championships in Qatar, cyclists swallowed thermometer pills before competing. Here’s what scientists learned.

You don’t really need more gear. You need knowledge and inspiration.

To fuel for athletic success, consider specificity, periodization, and personalization

A U.S. Army study aims to pin down the optimal staging protocol before high-altitude tests of endurance

Unraveling how a carbon fiber plate and space-age foam combine to make a more efficient shoe turns out to be trickier than expected

Colin O’Brady thinks it’s possible—but just barely—to haul enough calories to traverse the continent. Here’s how.

A new study suggests that hitting the gym more than twice a week is counterproductive. That seems unlikely.

A new study suggests that running on autopilot is the most efficient approach.

A new study finds that having “elite” levels of aerobic fitness increases longevity relative to merely “high” levels.

Research on a pro cycling team suggests that subjective training metrics can match high-tech ones

Evolutionary biologists weigh in on the eternal training dilemma of how to allocate time and energy to three different disciplines

A crowdfunding project promises to bring smoother pack-carrying experiences to the masses

A new study explores attitudes toward performance-enhancing drugs in the ultrarunning world

Falls put 3,000 climbers a year in hospital, costing more than $20 million, according to a new study

The man who raised the possibility of the feat back in 1991 takes another look into the crystal ball

A stunning world record of 2:01:39 resets our understanding of what it means to run 26.2 miles.

New research zeroes in on an unlikely culprit for why running gets less efficient as you fatigue.

A new study bolsters the claim that afternoon or evening workouts can mess with sleep. But don’t panic just yet.

The optimal number of sets in the weight room depends on whether you want to get big or strong

An Italian cyclist takes aim at the sport’s most storied record, with the aid of a controversial fuel.

Elite athletes are turning up the thermostat in pursuit of an edge

A massive new study confirms the mental health benefits of exercise. Don’t let the negative spin get you down.

Exactly how much power can a human produce? Scientists want to know.

Four years of race data from a professional cycling team unveils some differences between the sexes

Using machine learning to recognize who’s a serious competitive runner and who’s not could teach us something useful about avoiding injuries

New research finds that those who can identify and regulate their emotions keep pushing when the going gets tough

An in-depth biomechanical analysis of nearly everyone at the world track championships yields unexpected results

You don’t train the same way every day. Here’s why you should periodize everything else, too.

You’ve heard the hype about meditation and other "non-judgemental awareness" practices. Now check out the data.

A survey of backpackers' tactics on the 220-mile high-country route offers insights on what works and what doesn’t

Scientists point the finger at the brain chemical adenosine for the endurance-sapping effects of mental fatigue.

The doctors who scrambled to rescue and triage survivors in 2015 look back in search of lessons.

A study of the stress-reducing powers of wilderness explores “levels of nature.”

Conventional wisdom says that drafting doesn’t matter when cycling up steep hills. It’s wrong.

It feels good, but does it boost performance? Only randomized controlled trials can tell us.

New research compares men’s and women’s pacing patterns, and finds some telling differences

Researchers explore the psychology of running injuries

Military researchers have spent years calculating the energy cost of hauling a pack in various conditions. Here's how to use what they’ve found.

The myth that running causes osteoarthritis and ruins your knees has long been debunked. But what if your joints are already ruined?

Keep getting your eight hours, but the science is more complicated than you might expect

It's called accidentology. Yes, that's a real word.

You'd think the fittest men and women on the planet would outlive the most sedentary ones. But you'd be wrong.

The post-exercise recovery trend has produced mountains of new research. But can you trust the results?

Thanks to smartphones and watches, athletes can track more data than ever. But is HRV all that really matters?

A long-standing debate on how to optimize your endurance efficiency gets a new infusion of data

A new study probes why athletes like Callum Hawkins sometimes push themselves to collapse

A mathematical approach to flagging suspicious race times shows its worth

A new study explores why we're stronger and faster when someone is watching

Pain psychologists explore the differences between those who finish ultra-endurance races and those who don't

An analysis of five decades of world records reveals a surprising shift in pacing approach

A seasoned biomechanics expert offers his top insights on running-form danger signs

The effort paradox explains everything from mountain climbing to buying IKEA furniture

New research explores how ultraviolet light can trigger the production of health- and performance-boosting nitric oxide

It's the most reliable performance booster in the world—unless you have the wrong genes

A comprehensive research review finds that "neuromuscular" gains boost your speed and efficiency

The world’s first four-minute miler has died, but his approach to the sport should live on

In an era of specialization, a new study argues for diversifying your interests.

With the arrival of a long-rumored drink, endurance athletes want to know

For long-term health in endurance athletes, when you eat is nearly as important as how much you eat

Scientists make the case for a new real-time measure of endurance effort

Athletes have been shattering "expert" forecasts for the ultimate limits of our species for more than a century

Testing the idea that you can improve your ability to eat on the run

In an exclusive excerpt from his book 'Endure,' Outside's Sweat Science columnist explores the brain's role in setting our physical limits.

Can a controversial new form of statistical profiling weed out cheaters?

The hype around a new breed of running tech is raising the ire of biomechanists. Here's why.

A new case study digs into the medical records of a lost diver's incredible survival story

Forget training load and biomechanics. A surprising new study suggests that avoiding injury might come down to something far simpler.

A new study wades into the controversy, with unexpected results

Get the formula right and you'll never have to resort to the treadmill again

With a few adjustments, you can minimize the “interference effect” between high mileage and your ability to build muscle

After several years of conflicting results, new evidence shows that endurance is at least partly in your head

You can tweak your workout to minimize the downsides of sucking on a tailpipe